The 20th century is witnessing a computer revolution in which information processing and retrieve are being reliably done at incredible speeds. Today micro processors can be found in children’s toys, word processors, pocket calculators, industrial robots, home appliances, etc, – to mention a few of their innumerable uses – and there is practically no new machine, instrument, control equipment or information system that does not have a micro processor in it.
The computer is a product of the electronic. The electronic revolution triggered off by the invention of integrated circuits and then the (s) chips produced the third and the fourth generation computers. The race is now on to build the new or the fifth generation of computers, machines that exhibit artificial intelligence. The introduction of the Personal Computer (PC) provided a boost to the IT industry in India.
A machine with true artificial intelligence has not been created. Artificial intelligence studies have been focusing too narrowly on ‘problem solving’ as a paradigm for all intelligent behavior. This has led to a paradoxical situation where artificial intelligence specialists have been able to construct sophisticated knowledge based expert systems, but are unable to come to grips with ordinary everyday perceptual motor behavior involving vision speech, locomotion, manipulation language etc. Computers at present are smart in some ways but are not intelligent. They ‘mechanically’ workout solutions to problems; they do not use a logical / intuitive approach that characterizes humans.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the study of ways in which machines can be made to have sufficient creative reasoning power to perform mental task at which, at present human beings are better. Examples of problems that fall under the area of AI include commonsense tasks such as understanding a language, recognizing scenes, finding a way to reach an object that is for over heard, heavy and, and making sense of the plot of a novel. In addition, AI includes expert tasks, such as diagnosing diseases, designing computer systems, planning scientific expeditions expert systems are bridge between human and computer methods and problem solving.