History: North and South Yemen merged in May 1990 into a United Republic of Yemen in the south west of the Arabian peninsula. North Yemen was established in 1962 while South Yemen (formerly Aden and the protectorate of South Arabia) became independent in 1967.

Centuries ago Yemen was a rich land of exotic spices, frankincense and myrrh. The legendary Queen of Sheba ruled the kingdom then known as Happy Yemen. South Yemen became the Arab world’s only Marxist nation after independence.

In 1994, regional clan-based rivalries led to full-scale civil war. On May 5, S.Yemen declared itself an independent state, breaking away from united Yemen. The 2-month war ended on July 7, when Aden, fell to the northern forces. Losses caused by the conflict is estimated at $3 b.

Parliamentary elections were held in Apr. 1997.

Economy: The economy is chiefly based on oil and agriculture. The main agricultural products are coffee, dates, herbs, fruits, wheat, millet and maize. Cotton, coffee, hides and skins are exported. Industries: Food processing, mining and petroleum refining.


History: Zambia, under the administration of the South Africa Company from 1889 to 1924, became independent republic within the Commonwealth republic on October 24, 1964. In the 1980s, decline in copper prices hurt the economy. June 1990 witnessed severe violence caused by food riots. One-party rule came to an end with October 1991 elections.

Economy: Maize, tobacco, millet, cassava, groundnuts, cotton and sugar are produced. The country is rich in minerals including copper ,zinc, cobalt, lead, uranium and manganese. Although copper mining domnates Zambia’s economy, the country made a major shift to agricultural production, as a result of the crippling fluctuation of copper prices in the world market. President Chiluba reversed 27 years of command-economy socialism under Kaunda.

Over 500,000 children had been orphaned by the AIDS epidemic by the late 1990s.

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